- Leo XIII
- (1810–1903)Pope.Leo was born Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci in Carpineto, Italy. He was ordained into the Roman Catholic priesthood in 1837, was consecrated Bishop of Perugia in 1846, was created a Cardinal in 1853 and was elected Pope in succession to Pius ix in 1878. He made it his aim to reconcile the Papacy with modern civilisation and to that end he established an apostolic delegation in Washington; he established good relations with Belgium and Germany; he made contact with Russia and Japan and he sent an Apostolic Letter to the English. However, he failed to regain the Papal States, anti-clericalism in France grew ever stronger and he condemned the ‘Americanism’ movement associated with Isaac hecker. He is remembered for his encyclical Rerum Novarum of 1891 which encouraged social legislation and the formation of trade unions, for his opening of the Vatican Archives to scholars and for giving some encouragement to biblical critics. Although he was anxious to create friendly relations between the Churches, his commission rejected the validity of Anglican Orders and his idea of Church Union was that the Protestants and the Orthodox should all join Rome. Within his own Church, he promoted spirituality in several encyclicals and in 1900 he consecrated all humanity to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.E. Soderini, Leo XIII, Italy and France (1935);L.P. Wallace, Leo XIII and the Rise of Socialism (1966).
Who’s Who in Christianity . 2014.